types of stone


There are 2 main ways to classify stone: calcareous stone and siliceous stone.

Calcareous stone:

It is composed of calcium carbonate, a chemical compound commonly found in natural stone, shells and pearls. It is sensitive to acidic cleaning products and so mild, non-acidic cleaners are recommended. Types of calcareous stone include marble, travertine, onyx and limestone.

Siliceous stone:

It is composed mostly of silica or quartz like particles. It is highly durable in nature and relatively easy to clean with mild acidic cleaning solutions. Types of stone include granite, slate and quartzite.


Marble is available in a variety of colours with different vein colours and sizes. It is basically metamorphosed limestone. Natural marble is hard, durable and has been valued for its beauty, strength and resistance to fire.

It has been widely used throughout history in buildings, monuments and sculptures. Moreover, it is suitable in the application of roofing, interior and exterior floorings.


Travertine is essentially limestone, formed by the precipitation of carbonate minerals from solution in ground and surface waters, and/or geo-thermally heated hot-springs over a period of time. Key characteristics of Travertine stone are the holes within the stone which are caused by carbon dioxide evasion.

It is available in a range of colours from ivory to golden brown. The holes and cavities may be filled with matching cement, coloured epoxy, or polyester resins or left unfilled for a more rustic appearance.

It is normally used for flooring, wall cladding, vanity tops, fireplace surrounds and furniture.


Onyx is a translucent, calciferous stone similar in makeup to marble. It comes in a wide range of colours, most of which have extreme variation from piece to piece and within one piece.

Onyx is one of the most fragile natural stones, which is translucent in nature; if you hold a piece of it up to the light, you can see shapes and shadows through it. Since onyx is one of the most fragile natural stones, it is frequently produced with a mesh, resin or fibreglass backing to help give it the requisite strength.

Onyx is most commonly used as wall panels, floors, tables, fireplaces and even kitchens.


Limestone is a type of rock made up mostly of calcite, a mineral form of calcium carbonate. Most limestone is grey, but all colours of limestone from white to black have been found.

Limestone makes an excellent building stone because it can be carved easily. It is typically used for flooring, wall cladding, vanity tops, furniture or ornate stonework.


Granite contains three main minerals – quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase feldspar. These minerals give granite its range of colours.

It is one of the oldest, most durable and most respected of building materials. It is typically the hardest of the dimensional stones and withstands the elements very well. It is best for kitchen countertops because it is scratch proof, stain proof and heat resistant. Granite is also suitable for flooring or paving, wall cladding and all other types of countertops. Its properties make it suitable for a range of exterior or interior applications.


Sandstone commonly consists of sand sized grains of quartz, feldspar, and other minerals. It may also include organic matter or rock fragments. The minerals that cement the grains include quartz, pyrite, or calcite. The colour of sandstone ranges from cream, grey, red, brown to green, depending on the cements and impurities in the sand.

It is typically used as flooring or paving materials. Most sandstone is suitable for both interior and exterior applications.


Quartzite is a stone composed of grains of quartz cemented together by silica. It is a firm and compact stone with a body harder than marble.

Quartzite is a durable stone which is primarily used for interior and exterior floors; however, it may be used for wall-cladding, roofing and other types of interior and exterior applications as well.